Moufrad Chowdhury Unit 5 Assignment – Population213066790NATS 1840 A1)The countries with the highest total fertility rates are: - a)Niger – 6.62 children/womanb)Burundi – 6.04 children/womanc)Mali – 5.95 children/womanThe countries with the highest natural increase are: -a)Niger – 36.4 per 1000 inhabitantsb)Timor – Leste – 31.6 per 1000 inhabitantsc)Uganda – 31.4 per 1000 inhabitants Only, the first country Niger is at the top but the other two countries are different becausethe total fertility rate (TFR) is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. It shows the potential for population change in the country whereas natural increase shows the difference between the number of live births and deaths within the year. The natural increase countries are usually developing countries with poor access to resources such as food and water which causes many more deaths. 2)a) Crude Birth RateCrude Death Rate(53,491/5,765,371) X 1000(52,829/5,765,371) X 1000 Elbonia = 9.28 per 1000 people= 9.16 per 1000 people(359,291/18,127,531) X 1000(148,903/18,127,531) X 1000 Freedonia= 19.82 per 1000 people= 8.21 per 1000 peopleNet Migration RateNet Migration Rate(13,103/5,765,371) X1000(6,852/18,127,531) X 1000Elbonia = 2.27 per 1000 peopleFreedonia = 0.38 per 1000 peopleb) Elbonia’s growth rate = (53,491 – 52,829) + (13,103)X 100% = 0.24 %5,765,371
Wiseman 1 Hope Wiseman 213494752 NATS 1840 Ian Slater January 12 th , 2016 Chapter 2 Overkill Summary Paul Martin’s book entitled Twilight of mammoths chapter 2 summarizes his theory of overkill. The overkill theory claims that humans were responsible for the late Pleistocene extinction of megafauna. Martin believes that there is a causal connection between the presence of people and the vanishing of numerous types of substantial warm-blooded animals. Martin argues that many forces could trigger extinction, well those that are evident in earths history such as meteor strikes, climate change, nutrient shortages and diseases. Richard Klein has an explanation and that is the “ecological shock of human arrival”( Martin, 49) Martin strongly believes that climate change had nothing to do with the extinction of animals. By the 1950s research information by paleontologist Claude hibbard and by paleontologist in south America suggested that the large animals disappeared at a time when our species or its ancestors were present (Martin,49). It would be fundamental to establish exact dates for both extinctions and the arrival of humans at the places of the extinctions occurred. Willard Libbys method of radio carbon allowed human and nonhuman fossils from within roughly the last 50,000 years to be dated with precision, yielding age estimates in the last 20,000 years (Martin, 49), by determining dates for the known fossils of any species, educated guesses could be made about when that specie went extinct and whether it was sudden of gradual.