United StatesU.S. MilitarySpanish-American War, 1898
The war between the United States and Spain was largely fought in Cuba and the Philippines. The conflict lasted from April to August 1898. As a result, the United States acquired Puerto Rico and Guam and bought the Philippines. Cuba became independent.
The war was fought by U.S. regular forces and state volunteers. About 250,000 enlisted men and 11,000 officers served in this conflict. Most volunteers came from the states of New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Ohio.
Chronology of Major Events
|Jan 1898||Spanish sympathizers staged a riot in Havana, Cuba, a colony of Spain. The United States government sent the ship the U.S.S. Maine to Havana to protect the Americans in Cuba.|
|15 Feb 1898||The U.S. Maine was blown up in the Havana harbor. Many Americans believe that the ship was sunk by the Spanish, though the actual cause was never proven.|
|19 Apr 1898||The U.S. Congress adopted resolutions that declared Cuba independent from Spain and authorized U.S. military intervention to compel the Spanish to leave Cuba.|
|21 Apr 1898||Spain broke diplomatic relations with the United States.They declared a state of war on April 24. The U.S. officially declared war on Spain the following day.|
|23 Apr 1898||President McKinley asked for 125,000 volunteers to fight the war with Spain.|
|1 May 1898||Commodore George Dewey led an American attack against the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay in the Philippines, a Spanish colony. The Spanish fleet was destroyed, but the American ships were unharmed. Only eight Americans were slightly wounded in the skirmish.|
|15 Jun 1898||American forces repulsed a Spanish force a Guantanamo Bay,Cuba.|
|1 Jul 1898|| American troops stormed the Spanish strongholds of San|
Juan and El Caney near Santiago, Cuba. Casualties were
heavy on both sides. The city of Santiago surrendered on July
|3 Jul 1898|| The Spanish fleet, stationed in the Santiago harbor, was|
either destroyed or disabled.
|25 Jul 1898||American troops landed at Guanica Harbor, Puerto Rico.Three days later the island surrendered.|
|12 Aug 1898||All hostilities ended by the terms of a protocol. The terms ceded Cuba and Guam, one of the Mariana Islands, to the United States. The U.S. also purchased the Philippine Islands.|
|10 Dec 1898||The peace treaty was signed in Paris.|
|6 Feb 1899||The peace treaty was approved by the U.S. Senate.|
Below is an index to service records:
- General Index to Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served during the War with Spain. National Archives Microfilm Publication M871. (FHL films 1002433–558.)
- A wiki article describing an online collection is found at:
- United States, Index to Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers in the War with Spain (FamilySearch Historical Records)
Individual state indexes are also available for:
- Louisiana. National Archives Microfilm Publication M240 (FHL film 0880013.)
- North Carolina. National Archives Microfilm Publication M413 (FHL films 0821907–8.)
The indexes list the soldier’s name, rank, and unit. Entries that refer to miscellaneous personal papers have no corresponding compiled service records. The papers themselves follow the jacket envelopes for most units. See the FamilySearch Catalog for complete information on film numbers.
The service records of Florida have been microfilmed:
- Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Soldiers Who Served in the Florida Infantry during the War With Spain. National Archives Microfilm Publication M1087. (FHL films 1314126–38.) See the FamilySearch Catalog for complete film numbers.
Other service records are available at the National Archives. You may also find military records at state archives, historical societies, and county courthouses. Some are on microfilm at the Family History Library.
A list of volunteer officers is in Vol.2 pages 185–272 of the following:
The "Register of Enlistments in the U.S. Army, 1798-1914" (NARA M233) consists of U.S. Army registers that recorded the name and other information on soldiers that enlisted between 1798 and 1914. The collection includes enlistees from the time period of the Spanish-American War, however, it does not specify whether they served in the war or not. See US Army Enlistments, 1798-1914.
- The General Index to Pension Files is available online. The "General Index to Pension Files, 1861–1934" (NARA) T288. The index covers veterans of the Civil War, Spanish‑American War, Philippine Insurrection, Boxer Rebellion (1900 to 1901), and the regular Army, Navy, and Marine forces.
- The Organization Index to Pension Files is available online. The "Organization Index to Pension Files of Veterans Who Served Between 1861 and 1900" (NARA T289), also called the "Civil War Pension Index", lists Spanish‑American War veterans including Spanish‑American War nurses.
The pension records themselves are not on microfilm. Copies can be ordered from the National Archives.
- See also Military Records: Pre-WWI Pension Applications (16 minute online video) FamilySearch Research Classes Online, 2010.
Regular Army Officers
Peterson, Clarence Stewart. Known Military Dead during the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection, 1898–1901. Baltimore: Clarence Stewart Peterson, 1958. (FHL book 973 M23pc; fiche 6051242.) This work includes name, rank, company, regiment, and death date and place.
1900 U.S. Federal Census
The 1900 Federal Census (NARA T623) enumerated military personnel stationed overseas in places such as Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. The census gives the soldier’s name, rank, place of residence in the United States, birth date and place, company, regiment, and branch of service.
1930 U.S. Federal Census
The 1930 Federal Census asked if a person was "A veteran of the U.S. military or naval forces mobilized for any war or expedition" and "What war or expedition" they served in.
1940 U.S. Federal Census
The 1940 Federal Census asked "Is this person a veteran of the United States military forces or the wife, widow, or under 18-year-old child of a veteran?" and "If child, is veteran-father dead?" and "War or Military" served in. These were only asked of persons which were recorded on 2 of the 40 lines per page, which would have covered about five percent of the population.
Prisoner of War Records
Regular Army Officers
Veterans and Lineage Society Records
The United Spanish War Veterans was established in 1899. Its membership includes veterans with service in the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection to 4 July 1902. The following sources contain information on their members who were veterans of the two wars.
- United Spanish War Veterans, Department of Utah. Muster Rolls of Members, 1929–1957. (FHL film 1666085) - Lists the veteran’s name, age, residence, final discharge date, and unit. Some entries may contain additional data.
State Spanish-American War Records
Sources for Further Reading
- Alger, Russell A. The Spanish-American War. (Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Press, 1971).
- Chadwick, French E. The Relations of the U.S. and Spain: The Spanish-American War. (New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1911).
- Dyal, Donald H. Historical Dictionary of the Spanish American War. (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996).
- Foner, Philip S. The Spanish-Cuban-American War and the Birth of American Imperialism, 1895-1902. (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1972).
- Freidel, Frank. The Splendid Little War. (Boston: Little, Brown and Co.,1958).
- Gabbert, Howard Markland. The Rough Riders: A Brief Study and Indexed Roster of the 1st Regiment U.S. Volunteer Cavalry 1898. (Tucson: Arizona State Genealogical Society, 1992). FHL book 973 M2grr.
- Includes the name of the soldier, rank, place of residence, death date, muster out date, and discharge date.
- Kelly, Thomas E., III. The U.S. Army and the Spanish-American Era, 1895–1910. Special Bibliography 9 in 2 parts. (Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania: U.S. Army Military History Research Collection, 1974). FHL book 973 B4ua no. 9.
- An inventory of the manuscript and published holdings of the U.S. Army Military History Research Institute. The collection has material gathered from veterans and widows, including questionnaires completed by veterans in 1968 as part of the Spanish-American War, Philippine Insurrection, and Boxer Rebellion research project.
- Livingston, Rebecca. “Sailors, Soldiers and Marines of the Spanish-American War: The Legacy of USS Maine.” Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration, Vol. 30 (Spring 1998), p. 62–72. (FHL book 973 B2p.)
- O'Toole, George J. A. The Spanish War: An American Epic--1898. (New York: Norton, 1984).
- Sexton, William T. Soldiers in the Sun: An Adventure in Imperialism. (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: The Military Service Publishing Co., 1939).
- Titherington, Richard Handfield. A History of the Spanish-American War of 1898. (Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Press, 1971).
- Trask, David F. The War with Spain in 1898. (New York: Macmillan, 1981).
- Venzon, Anne Cipriano. The Spanish-American War: An Annotated Bibliography. Vol. 11 of Wars of the United States. (New York: Garland Publishing, 1990). FHL book 973 M23b v. 11.
- Contains sections on the U.S. Army and Navy which identify sources on regular and volunteer units and vessels. Also covers Black Americans in the war, relief efforts, and medical and sanitary conditions.
- Werstein, Irving. Turning Point for America: The Story of the Spanish-American War. (New York: J. Messner, 1964).
The Spanish American War of 1898 Essay
1316 Words6 Pages
The Spanish American War of 1898
One hundred years ago, in 1898, the United States was fighting the Spanish-American War. The victory over Spain made the United States a colonial power. The Spanish colonies of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines, as well as the formerly independent nation of Hawaii, became American possessions. The excuse for entering the war was the rebellion by the Cubans against Spanish rule and the explosion of an American battleship U.S.S. Maine. The Spanish colonies in mainland North and South America became independent in the early 1800s, but Cuba and Puerto Rico remained Spanish. Many Americans in the U.S. sympathized with Cuba, which began in 1895, and also, maybe more importantly, U.S. citizens…show more content…
Before dawn on May 1, 1898, Commodore George Dewey's flagship Olympia led seven U.S. Navy cruisers and gunboats into Manila Bay. By 8 AM that morning Dewey's squadron had located and destroyed virtually the entire Spanish naval forces in the Philippines. Damage to the American ships was very little, and their crews suffered no fatalities and few injuries. The Battle of Manila Bay was a singular demonstration of the daring and decisive application of sea power. In a few hours, Dewey had eliminated any threat that the Spanish Navy might pose to U.S. Far Eastern commerce and placed Spain's centuries-long rule of the Philippines in great jeopardy. A few days later, with the capture of Cavite arsenal, he also gained a repair and refueling base, essential for maintaining his squadron under wartime conditions thousands of miles from home. On May 15, Theodore Roosevelt began training the famous Rough Riders for battles in Cuba, which brought him the fame that made him vice president in 1901 and then president on September 13 . In Washington, President McKinley received the news of the great battle. However, the battle of Manila did not end the war. 100 miles off the US coast is where Spanish held Cuba, by a substantial army, and hostile to American interests there. No naval force could impose on Cuba, and in order to force the Spanish out, a full scale invasion would have to be mounted. In 1897, Theodore