Eleventh and Twelfth Grade Writing Standards
Writing standards for eleventh and twelfth grades define the knowledge and skills needed for writing proficiency at these grade levels. By understanding 11th and 12th grade writing standards, parents can be more effective in helping their children meet grade level expectations.
What is 11th and 12th Grade Writing?
In grades eleven and twelve, students are expected to produce error-free essays that demonstrate their understanding of the elements of writing (e.g., purpose, speaker, audience, form). Students plan, draft, and complete written compositions on a regular basis, editing their essays for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of standard American English. 11th graders and 12th graders practice all forms of writing, with an emphasis on writing coherent and focused persuasive essays that convey a well-defined perspective and tightly reasoned argument. Eleventh grade and twelfth grade students also focus on personal forms of writing, including a response to literature, a reflective essay, or an autobiographical narrative.
What Writing Standards Measure
Academic standards are very specific, detailing every aspect of what students are expected to learn in each grade. Organized into five key areas, writing standards focus on: writing process, writing purposes (what students write), writing evaluation, writing conventions (grammar, usage, and mechanics), and research/inquiry for writing. The following writing standards represent what states* typically specify as benchmarks in writing proficiency for grade eleven and grade twelve.
Grades 11 and 12: Writing Process
Writing standards for all grades focus on the writing process as the primary tool to help students become independent writers. In grades 11 and 12, students are expected to use each phase of the process as follows:
- Prewriting: Students in 11th and 12th grades use prewriting strategies to generate ideas, develop voice, and plan their writing. Students generate ideas from multiple sources (e.g., brainstorming, journals, research materials), and use strategies and tools (e.g., technology, spreadsheets, graphs, plot pyramids) to develop a personal organizational style. Students make a plan for writing that addresses purpose, audience, controlling idea, logical sequence, and a timeframe for completion.
- Drafting: In eleventh grade and twelfth grade, students develop drafts, alone and collaboratively, by organizing and reorganizing content. Drafts should structure ideas and arguments in a sustained, persuasive, and sophisticated way and support them with precise and relevant examples. Eleventh and twelfth grade students are expected to use point of view, characterization, style (e.g., use of irony), and related elements for specific rhetorical and aesthetic purposes. Students should work to enhance meaning by employing rhetorical devices, including the extended use of parallelism, repetition, and analogy. Drafts should also be planned to incorporate visual aids (e.g., graphs, tables, pictures) and a call for action where appropriate. In 11th and 12th grades, students demonstrate a command of language by using natural, fresh, and vivid ways to establish a specific tone. Students analyze the language techniques of professional authors (e.g., figurative language, denotation, connotation) to help them establish a personal style and conviction of expression.
- Revising: In 11th grade and 12th grade, students revise selected drafts to highlight the individual voice and point of view, improve sentence variety and style, and enhance subtlety of meaning and tone in ways that are consistent with the purpose, audience, and genre. Students also evaluate their drafts for the development of a central theme, the logical organization of content, and the creation of meaningful relationships among ideas. Other revision techniques used by eleventh and twelfth graders include creating precision and interest by elaborating ideas through supporting details (e.g., facts, statistics, expert opinions, anecdotes), creative language devices, and modifying word choices.
- Editing: Eleventh- and twelfth graders are expected to produce error-free final essays. Students proofread carefully for appropriateness of organization, content, style, and language conventions, using resources and reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, checklist to guide proofreading). Students edit for grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling, and check for varied sentence structure and appropriate vocabulary.
- Publishing: Using technology, students in grades eleven and twelve publish their work frequently in a format appropriate to purpose (e.g., for display, multimedia). Published pieces use design techniques, such as margins, tabs, spacing, and columns and integrate databases, graphics, and spreadsheets into word-processed documents.
Use of technology: Eleventh grade and twelfth grade students use advanced publishing software and graphic programs to support aspects of creating, revising, editing, and publishing texts.
Grades 11 and 12: Writing Purposes
In grades eleven and twelve, students write in a variety of forms, including business, personal, literary, and persuasive texts, for various audiences and purposes. Students combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description to produce essays of at least 1,500 words each. Specifically, writing standards for 11th and 12th grades stipulate that students write in the following forms:
- Narrative: Eleventh and twelfth grade students write fictional, biographical, and autobiographical narrative essays. In these essays, students relate a sequence of events and communicate the significance of the events through concrete sensory details (e.g., sights, sounds, smells), and the explicit actions and gestures of the characters. Eleventh- and twelfth-graders develop the plot/events and characterizations further by creating dialogue and interior monologues to depict the characters’ feelings and locating scenes and incidents in specific places. Students are expected to use literary devices and make effective use of descriptions of appearance, images, shifting perspectives, and sensory details. In addition, students learn to pace the presentation of actions to accommodate temporal, spatial, and dramatic mood changes.
- Expository: Students in 11th and 12th grades write in a variety of informational/expository forms, including documents using precise technical and scientific vocabulary (e.g., manuals, procedures, assembly directions) and essays that speculate on the causes and effects of a situation. Expository essays must include introductory, body, and concluding paragraphs, and demonstrate coherence, logical progression, and support for ideas. In the cause-effect essay, students establish the connection between the postulated causes or effects, and offer evidence supporting the validity of the proposed causes or effects. Students are expected to incorporate information and ideas from primary and/or secondary sources, noting the validity and reliability of these sources and attributing sources of information accurately. Eleventh- and twelfth-graders may also be asked to write detailed travel directions and design an accompanying graphic using the cardinal and ordinal directions, landmarks, streets and highways, and distances.
- Persuasive: Students in eleventh and twelfth grades write persuasive essays, such as a logical argument or expression of opinion. Persuasive essays in these grades should state a position or claim, and present detailed evidence, examples, and reasoning to support effective arguments and emotional appeals. Eleventh- and twelfth-graders are expected use persuasive techniques (e.g., word choice, repetition, emotional appeal, hyperbole, appeal to authority, celebrity endorsement, rhetorical question, irony, symbols, glittering generalities, card stacking, testimonials, bandwagon, image association, transfer). Students must also refute opposing arguments by addressing readers’ concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations.
- Responses to Literature: Eleventh and twelfth grade students are expected to demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the significant ideas in literary works or passages. Students analyze the use of imagery, language, universal themes, and unique aspects of the text, and support their ideas through accurate and detailed references to the text or to other works. Eleventh- and twelfth-graders should also show an understanding of the author’s use of stylistic devices and an appreciation of the effects created. In addition, students must identify and assess the impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text.
- Reflective Essays: In reflective essays, 11th and 12th grade students are expected to explore the significance of personal experiences, events, conditions, or concerns by using rhetorical strategies (e.g., narration, description, exposition, persuasion). Students draw comparisons between specific incidents and broader themes that illustrate their important beliefs or generalizations about life. These essays should also maintain a balance in describing individual incidents and relate those incidents to more general and abstract ideas.
- Historical Investigation Reports: In historical investigation reports, 11th and 12th grade students are expected to use exposition, narration, description, argumentation, or some combination of rhetorical strategies to support the main proposition. Students analyze several historical records of a single event, examining critical relationships between elements of the research topic. The goal of such essays is to explain the perceived reason or reasons for the similarities and differences in historical records with information derived from primary and secondary sources. Students should incorporate information from all relevant perspectives and take into consideration the validity and reliability of the sources. These reports should also include a formal bibliography.
- Business and Work-Related Documents: Students in grade 11 and grade 12 write a variety of business and work-related documents, including letters, memos, emails, meeting minutes, speaker introductions, résumés, applications, and cover letters for applications. The goal of business writing in these grades is to present information using a tone and style that fits the purpose and audience. In the case of job applications and résumés, students strive to provide clear and relevant information and address the intended audience appropriately. Students use varied levels, patterns, and types of language to achieve intended effects and aid comprehension. Eleventh- and twelfth-graders are expected to follow the conventional style for that type of document and use page formats, fonts, and spacing that contribute to the readability and impact of the document.
- Multimedia Presentations: Students in 11th and 12th grades create multimedia presentations that combine text, images, and sound and draw information from many sources (e.g., television broadcasts, videos, films, newspapers, magazines, CD-ROMs, the Internet, electronic media-generated images). Students select an appropriate medium for each element of the presentation and use the selected media skillfully, editing appropriately and monitoring for quality. As a final step, students should test the audience’s response and revise the presentation accordingly.
Grades 11 and 12: Writing Evaluation
Eleventh and twelfth grade students evaluate the writing of others, as well as their own writing. Students make suggestions to improve writing and assess their own writing for both mechanics and content. In grades eleven and twelve, students are expected to respond productively to peer reviews of their own work. Writing standards recommend that each student keep and review a collection of his/her own written work to determine its strengths and weaknesses and to set goals as a writer.
Grades 11 and 12: Written English Language Conventions
Students in eleventh and twelfth grades rely on the conventions and mechanics of written English, including the rules of usage and grammar, to write clearly and effectively. Students are expected to produce legible, error-free work that shows accurate spelling and correct punctuation and capitalization. In particular, writing standards for grades eleven and twelve specify these key markers of proficiency:
—Understand correct use of varied sentence structure, including the elimination of dangling or misplaced modifiers, run-on or fused sentences, and unintended sentence fragments.
—Compose increasingly more involved sentences that contain clauses (e.g., main and subordinate) and phrases (e.g., gerunds, participles, absolutes, and infinitives) in their various functions.
Grammar and Mechanics
— Exhibit command of grammar, diction, and paragraph and sentence structure and an understanding of English usage.
—Demonstrate control over grammatical elements such as parts of speech, verb tense, noun/pronoun agreement, subject/verb agreement, pronoun/antecedent agreement, parallelism, modifier placement, comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and unintended shift in person or tense.
—Use appropriate manuscript requirements in writing, including title page presentation, pagination, spacing and margins, and integration of source and support material.
—Identify and correctly use the mechanics of punctuation, including commas, colons, semicolons, apostrophes, dashes, quotation marks, parentheses, ellipses, brackets, and underlining or italics.
—Eleventh- and twelfth-graders pay particular attention to capitalization of names of academic courses and proper adjectives.
— Use knowledge of spelling rules, orthographic patterns, generalizations, prefixes, suffixes, and roots, including Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon root words.
—Understand foreign words commonly used in English (e.g., laissez faire, croissant).
—Students use fluent and legible handwriting skills.
Grades 11 and 12: Research and Inquiry
In eleventh and twelfth grades, students use appropriate research methodology and a variety of print and electronic sources to gather information for writing research papers and other writing assignments. Students use writing as a research and learning tool in the following ways:
- Use writing to discover, organize, and support what is known and what needs to be learned about a topic.
- Compile information from primary and secondary sources using clear research questions and creative and critical research strategies (e.g., field studies, oral histories, interviews, experiments, electronic sources).
- Use systematic strategies to organize and record information (e.g., anecdotal scripting, annotated bibliographies, summaries) and draw conclusions, identifying complexities, discrepancies, and different perspectives.
- Use appropriate conventions for documentation in the text, notes, and bibliographies by adhering to those in style manuals (e.g., Modern Language Association Handbook, The Chicago Manual of Style).
- Analyze strategies that writers in different fields use to compose.
- Use writing as a study tool to clarify and remember information.
Eleventh and Twelfth Grade Writing Tests
In many states, students in grades eleven and twelve take standardized writing assessments, either with pencil and paper or on a computer. While tests vary, students are typically given questions about grammar and mechanics, as well as timed essay-writing exercises in which they must write an essay in response to a writing prompt. On 11th and 12th grade essay writing tests, students demonstrate their ability to produce an effective composition for a specific purpose, as well as their command of the conventions of spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, usage, and sentence structure.
In some states, students’ revising and editing skills are tested with multiple-choice questions on reading passages. Students are asked to indicate how a particular sentence might be corrected or improved or how the organization or development of a paragraph might be strengthened. Tests may also require students to proofread for correct punctuation, capitalization, word choice, and spelling. Another type of question asks students to write a summary statement in response to 11th and 12th grade reading passages. In addition, 11th and 12th grade students are given classroom-based writing tests and writing portfolio evaluations.
State writing assessments are correlated to state writing standards. These standards-based tests measure what students know in relation to what they’ve been taught. If students do well on school writing assignments, they should do well on such a test. Educators consider standards-based tests to be the most useful as these tests show how each student is meeting grade-level expectations. These assessments are designed to pinpoint where each student needs improvement and help teachers tailor instruction to fit individual needs. State departments of education usually include information on writing standards and writing assessments on their websites, including testing guidelines and sample questions.
Writing Test Preparation
The best writing test preparation in eleventh and twelfth grades consists of encouraging your student to write, raising awareness of the written word, and offering guidance on writing homework. Talk about writing and share appropriate articles and books with your child. Students learn to write effectively when they write more often. Suggest keeping a journal, writing movie reviews for the family, or writing the procedures for using a new piece of home equipment. Any writing is valuable practice. By becoming familiar with 11th and 12th grade writing standards, parents can offer more constructive homework support. Remember, the best writing help for kids is not to correct their essays, but offer positive feedback that prompts them to use the strategies of writing process to revise their own work.
Time4Writing Online Writing Courses Support 11th and 12th Grade Writing Standards
Time4Writing is an excellent complement to eleventh and twelfth grade writing curriculums. Developed by classroom teachers, Time4Writing targets the fundamentals of writing. Students build writing skills and deepen their understanding of the writing process by working on standard-based, grade-appropriate writing tasks under the individual guidance of a certified teacher.
Writing on a computer inspires many students, even reluctant writers. Learn more about Time4Writing online courses for eleventh and twelfth grades.
*K-12 writing standards are defined by each state. Time4Writing relies on a representative sampling of state writing standards, notably from Florida, Texas, and California, as well as on the standards published by nationally recognized education organizations, such as the National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association.
You’ve been exploring the writing standards for eleventh and twelfth grade. To view the writing standards for other grade levels, use one of the following links:
Welcome to Grade 11 English
"...homework was a big part of my mark, and not doing it was a huge mistake and my final mark got affected just because of that." - G
"...one of my regrets is I didn't do most of the assignments that cost a decent amount of marks and that could make me fail this course again. If I did them, I wouldn't be as nervous as I am." - A
"...but I do wish I didn't have been lazy in the middle of the semester. I could have had a good mark, then I wouldn't be finishing work so I can pass and I would be studying for the exam instead." - M
ASSIGNMENTS AND RESOURCES
Grade 11 English Comprehensive Course Outline
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If you're struggling with getting your thoughts on to the paper and putting together a concise, well-crafted summary, then click on the following link to access a detailed summary "how-to" that takes you through the planning, writing and revising stages of summative writing. A summary is simply a brief, clear,retelling.
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Grade 11 Writing Program
You have all had experience with various writing styles, and as we begin the semester I think it is always helpful to review the four or five types of paragraphs that you will regularly be using throughout the course. I have added a file that you can download/view/print below. Stay tuned for writing activities that will help you practice these different forms of writing.
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Descriptive Writing Practice
Comparing and Contrasting
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The Art of Persuasion
Persuasive writing has many "rules" or guidelines, one of them being that it is vital that you have a strong understanding of the position opposite to your own. The following website offers pros and cons on a multitude of topics and is certainly worth examining.
Additional Persuasive Writing Resources
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Narrative Writing Practice
I also posted the video that we viewed in class so that you can continue to be inspired by this young man's story.
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Getting to know Macbeth...
I have also included a link to an online version of the play to assist you outside of class times. Click on the link below to access the full text.
Check our classroom website regularly for more resources and tips to help you navigate through Macbeth.
Deconstructing Art Images
Macbeth Study Guide
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The Catcher in the Rye
Chapter 18 Assignment: Advice Letter
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CITR Study Questions
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CITR Persuasive Essay Resources
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How to Insert Quotations
Salinger Movie Trailer
Tuesdays with Morrie Novel Study
As part of our current novel study, students will be required to discuss particular sections and aspects of Tuesdays with Morrie. Please make sure that you are an active participant in these table discussions and that you take time to reflect and comment on the events surrounding Morrie's inevitable decline.
I have included both the Journal Reflection Assignment and the Section Discussion Questions below. Simply click on the files to view them. The 5 Journal Reflections will need to be typed, and free of any grammatical errors before submitting them at the end of the novel study.
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Aphorism Essay or Speech Assignment
Using your persuasive writing skills, you will "argue" your case and show that your viewpoint is the correct one. The assignment is included below, please click on the file to access it.
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Persuasive Speech Rubric - Written Form
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Persuasive Speech Rubric - Oral Form
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Julian Treasure: How to speak so that people want to listen - Ted Talk Video
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Tuesdays with Morrie vs. The Catcher in the Rye or vs. The Lovely Bones (Optional Bonus Mark Assignment)
Now that you may have completed all of these books, you will be developing an editorial in which you convince a future Grade 11 student that one OR the other books is a better book at dealing with the topic of Life or Death.
Remember that you are comparing a memoir to a novel.
I have included a downloadable version of the assignment along with an editorial format that you may use to help you organize your ideas.
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1.an article in a newspaper or other periodical presenting the opinion of the
publisher, editor, or editors.
2. a statement broadcast on radio or television that presents the opinion of the
owner, manager, or the like, of the station or channel.
3. something regarded as resembling such an article or statement, as a lengthy, dogmatic utterance.
I have included a quick editorial "how to" video below - I hope you find it helpful.
***Keep scrolling down to access both Process and Comprehension Exam Resources***
Semester 2 Exam Dates
Process Exam -This exam takes place in class. Make sure you have the necessary writing materials before starting. Cell phones, I-pods, MP3 players and backpacks will NOT be allowed in either the gym or in the classroom during the exam session.
Comprehensive Exam - This exam is written in the school gym. Make sure you have the necessary writing materials before starting. Cell phones, I-pods, MP3 players and backpacks will NOT be allowed in either the gym or in the classroom during the exam session.
The following resource/file will assist you as you prepare for the final examination. You will not be required to identify ALL of these techniques within the exam texts - however you will need to discuss more than one.
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Poetry Resources - Comprehension Exam Prep
Click on the file below to access a Resource Sheet that includes definitions of Figurative and Rhetorical Devices, including metaphors, similes, alliteration, personification, hyperbole and many more.
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Grade 11 Process Exam Resources
You will need a hi-lighter marker, blue/black pen(s), pencil and white-out (optional)
Take a moment to review the two Powerpoint Presentations below that take a more detailed look at the Art of Persuasion. You may find them helpful when preparing for the Process Exam.
The Art of Persuasion Powerpoint
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Editorial Overview and Samples
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Persuasive Speech Writing
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Persuasive Essay Resources
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Grade 11 Exam Practice Questions...June Comprehension Exam
Question 1: Choose either We Walked Miles or Those Letters. Explain how the speaker's words or actions reveal a change in perspective or relationship.
Question 2: Analyze how specific details in the editorial cartoon, Election Day! reflect a change in gender roles.
Question 3: Identify and explain a main idea in The Connection Between Me and a Receding Glacier (Support your response with reference to the text) AND explain how this idea applies to you or people you know. NOTE: This is a two-part response - please use two separate paragraphs when you answer this question.
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Grade 11 Words Project
Please take note of the dates below so that you are prepared for the in-class work periods.
February 14, 2012 - Words Work Period 1
February 24, 2012 - Words Work Period 2
March 6, 2012 - Words Work Period 3
March 7, 2012 - DUE DATE
March 7-8, 2012- Presentation Days
Still looking for a word or do you want to see how your word can be represented in a visual way? Visit Visuwords Online Graphical Dictionary for more details.
WORDS PROJECT EVALUATION AND SELF REFLECTION...
Although you have all received the evaluation criteria which was attached to the assignment itself, I have included the file below to assist you when working on your self reflection. This can be submitted as part of your project or handed in separately.
WORDS WORDS and more WORDS
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Words Project Reflection
Make sure this entry is added to your Reflection Journal as soon as possible.
Before You Write....
Before you begin the writing process, you need to think about your Writing Variables. What type of piece are you writing? (Form) What is your theme or main message? (Central Idea) Who are you writing this for? (Audience) What is your reason for writing it/What are you trying to do? (Purpose) Where will your audience view, read or hear it? (Context)
Depending on the form you choose, you will need to take a look at the specific elements that are required for that piece. Take a look at the video below in hopes that it will assist you in developing your narrative texts.
The Power of Persuasion
Persuasive Writing Assignments - Cyber Bullying and Topic of Choice
Cyber Bullying Paragraph
In a strong persuasive paragraph, convince your reader that cyber bullying is or
is not a problem that needs to be addressed in schools or in society as a whole.
Typed copy due in class: Thursday, February 23.
Topic of Choice Paragraph
In a strong persuasive paragraph, convince your reader to change their opinion or move them to action in regards to a particular subject matter. Click on the file below to see a list of 40 different persuasive writing topics.
Typed copy due in class: Friday, February 24.
Macbeth Editorial Help
To assist you with your Macbeth Editorial Assignment and in addition to posting the newest assignment (first link), I have included two more files that contain writing strategies and tips for editorial writing. If you are still struggling with this assignment, please e-mail me or see me before/after class for clarification.
Reminder that the Macbeth assignment is due Wednesday, January 25, 2014.
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Macbeth Act Summaries
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The Lovely Bones vs. Tuesdays with Morrie Persuasive Essay Assignment
Due: Friday, December 21, 2013
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The Lovely Bones: First Thoughts Reflection
In a reasonably sized paragraph, write down your first thoughts in your reflection journals after reading Chapter 1 in The Lovely Bones. You will be making regular comments and reflections in your journal throughout the novel study. Please make sure you keep up to date with all entries.
Ms. Dennis' Book Talks
UPDATED BOOK LIST
Stones by William Bell
Monster by Walter Dean Myers
The Pigman by Paul Zindel
A Glimpse into the Future (or the Present)
I thought it would be a good time to take a look at how far we've come as a planet - especially in regards to the use of technology. Take a look at the following video and tell me what you think and whether or not "you already knew?"
Is Your Life Affected by Someone's Drinking?
- to examine (two or more objects, ideas, people, etc.) in order to note
similarities and differences; to compare two pieces of literary work
(Webster's. p 416):
- to compare in order to show unlikeness or
differences; note the opposite natures, purposes, etc., of: Contrast the
political rights of Romans and Greeks (Webster's. p 442).
Click on the link below to access a PDF file explaining how to write an effective compare and contrast paragraph.