Social Inequality In India Essays On Education

  • Anitha, B.K. 2000. Village, Caste and Education. Delhi: Rawat Publication.Google Scholar

  • Bayly, S. 1999. Caste, Society and Politics in India From the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age. New Cambridge History of India, Part 4, Vol. 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Beteille, A. 1969. Castes: Old and New, Essays in Social Structure and Social Stratification. Bombay: Asia Publishing House.Google Scholar

  • Boston, T. and U. Nair-Reichert. 2003. “Affirmative Action: Perspectives From the United States, India and Brazil.” The Western Journal of Black Studies 27(1):3–14.Google Scholar

  • Bourdieu, P. 1973. “Cultural Reproduction and Social Reproduction.” Knowledge, Education and Cultural Change: Papers in the Sociology of Education, edited by R. Brown. London: Tavistock Publications.Google Scholar

  • Bowles, S. and H. Gintis. 1976. Schooling in Capitalist America: Educational Reforms and Contradictions of American Life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar

  • Collins, R. 1979. The Credential Society: an Historical Sociology of Education and Stratification. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar

  • Desai, S., C.D. Adams, and A. Dubey. 2006. “In the Margins: Social Inequalities in Children’s Educational Outcomes in India.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America, March 30–April 1, Los Angeles.Google Scholar

  • Dirks, N. 2001. Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

  • Dreze, J. and A. Sen. 1995. India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Engineer, A.A. 2001. Muslim Middle Class and It’s Role. Mumbai, India: Center for Study of Society and Secularism.Google Scholar

  • Frankel, F., Z. Hasan, R. Bhargava, and B. Arora, eds. 2000. Transforming India: Social and Political Dynamics of Democracy. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Galanter, M. 1997. “Pursuing Equality: An Assessment of India’s Policy of Compensatory Discrimination for Disadvantaged Groups.” Pp. 187–99 in Politics in India, edited by S. Kaviraj. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Government of India. 2006. Social, Economic and Educational Status of the Muslim Community in India. New Delhi: Government of India.Google Scholar

  • Grosh, M. and P. Glewwe. Editors. 2000. Designing Household Survey Questionnaires for Developing Countries: Lessons From 15 Years of the Living Standards Measurement Study. Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar

  • Gupta, D., ed. 1991. Social Stratification. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • — 2005. “Caste and Politics: Identity Over System.” Annual Review of Anthropology 21: 409–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Halsey, A.H., A. Heath, and J.M. Ridge. 1980. Origins and Destinations. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar

  • Hannum, E. 2002. “Educational Stratification by Ethnicity in China: Enrollment and Achievement in the Early Reform Years.” Demography 39:95–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Hasan, M. 2001. Legacy of a Divided Nation: India’s Muslims Since Independence. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Hauser, R.M. and D.L. Featherman. 1976. “Equality of Schooling: Trends and Prospects.” Sociology of Education 49:99–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Indiastat. 2006. Group-wise Number of Employees and Representation of Scheduled Castes and Tribes in Public Sector Employment in India, 1999. Available online at http://www.indiastat .com/Google Scholar

  • Kothari, R., ed. 1970. Caste in Indian Politics. New York: Gordon and Beach, Science Publishers.Google Scholar

  • Kulkarni, P.M. 2002. Interstate Variations in Human Development Differentials Among Social Groups in India. Working Paper No. 80. National Council for Applied Economic Research, New Delhi.Google Scholar

  • Mare, R.D. 1980. “Social Background and School Continuation Decisions.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 75:295–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • — 1981. “Change and Stability in Educational Stratification.” American Sociological Review 46:72–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Mendelsohn, O. and M. Vicziany. 1998. The Untouchables: Subordination, Poverty and the State in Modern India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Meyer, J.W., F.O. Ramirez, and Y.N. Soysal. 1992. “World Expansion of Mass Education, 1870–1980.” Sociology of Education 65:128–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Nambissan, G.B. and M. Sedwal. 2002. “Education for All: The Situation of Dalit Children in India.” Pp. 72–86 in India Education Report, edited by R. Govinda. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Pong, S.-L. 1993. “Preferential Policies and Secondary School Attainment in Peninsular Malaysia.” Sociology of Education 66:245–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • The Probe Team. 1999. Public Report on Basic Education in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Raftery, A.E. and M. Hout. 1993. “Maximally Maintained Inequality: Expansion, Reform, and Opportunity in Irish Education, 1921–75.” Sociology of Education 66:41–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Shah, G., H. Mander, S. Thorat, S. Deshpande, and A. Baviskar. 2006. Untouchability in Rural India. New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar

  • Sharma, K.L., ed. 1999. Social Inequality in India: Profiles of Caste, Class and Social Mobility. Jaipur: Rawat Publications.Google Scholar

  • Shavit, Y. and H.-P. Blossfeld, eds. 1993. Changing Educational Attainment in Thirteen Countries. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar

  • Sowell, T. 2004. Affirmative Action Around the World: An Empirical Study. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar

  • Sujatha, K. 2002. “Education Among Scheduled Tribes.” India Education Report, edited by R. Govinda, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

  • Thorat, S., Aryama, and P. Negi. 2005. Reservation and Private Sector: Quest for Equal Opportunity and Growth. Jaipur: Rawat.Google Scholar

  • Tienda, M., K.T. Leicht, and K.M. Lloyd. 2002. “Before and After Hopwood: The Elimination of Affirmative Action and Minority Student Enrollment in Texas.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America, May 9–11, Atlanta.Google Scholar

  • Treiman, D.T., H.G.B. Ganzeboom, and S. Rijken. 2003. “Educational Expansion and Educational Achievement in Comparative Perspective.” California Center for Population Research Working Paper CCPR-007-03. University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar

  • Inequality is an unequal rewards or opportunities for different individuals within a group or groups within a society. Education is recognised as major social institution. However, inequality in education is linked to major problems in society. In education a key factor that influences a child’s performance at school is social class. By going through Marxist and Functionalist perspectives, explanations for such inequalities can be understood.

    Difference in social background results in differences in achievement within an academic field. The level of achievement of the middle class is hugely different from that of the working class. Students success depends on parents income and parental choice. In other words the higher the social class of the parents, the more successful a child is likely to become in education.

    Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have low academic status than the students from higher socio-economic backgrounds. The education system remains socially selective, the higher the social class of the parents, the better the education of the children.

    Educational inequality starts young for children of disadvantaged class and they struggle to keep up throughout their school years. Children of lower socio-economic background at age 3 are one year behind the national average. By the time they are 14, they are two years behind. We can see this figure is staggering and extremely worrying. As a result, these children are less likely to go into higher education and more likely to be categorised into a lower academic ability.

    The functionalist perspective on education is concerned with the functions or role of education for society as a whole. It focuses on its contribution in maintaining social stability through development of social harmony. It believe in building bridges between values and passing culture and norms through education. Functionalist views education as the basic needs for a society in order to survive. Particularly, functionalist sees education providing a trained and qualified labour force and its effective role selection and allocation in a meritocratic society.

    The Marxist perspective on education highlights the way education system reproduces existing social class inequalities and how it is carried out to the next generations. Marxist argues that the values passed on by school are those of ruling class. In contrary to functionalism Marxist does not believe education system is neutral filter and grade according to meritocracy. Instead it believes social class and other factors influence success and failure in education. Marxist approach argues that there is no equality of opportunity in education, education rather covers the fact that the social class influences educational success and there is inequality

    Inequality in education can put individuals of the groups that are affected by these at a disadvantage in the future. Inequality in education gap will remain because even though we are aware of it we have learnt to tolerate it.The education system reproduces existing social class inequalities, and passes them from one generation to the next. Thus we can see that children from low socio economic class lack the aspiration to excel academically. This is not because of the fault of their own but they were born into lower socio-economic class.

    Bibliography

    Maureen T. Hallinan (2006)Handbook of Sociology
    https://www.dawsonera.com/readonline/9780387364247#

    http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2014/jan/27/education-inequality-in-england-where-is-the-gap-widening-demos

    K. Browne, (2006) Introducing sociology for AS Level, 2nd Edition, Cambridge, Polity Press

    G. Marshall, (1994) Oxford Dictionary of Sociology, 2nd edition, Oxford,

    One thought on “Social Inequality In India Essays On Education

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *